It weighs only a few grams, but it is one of the strongest songs in the European forests

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Common wren in the forest
It has a very powerful song that can draw attention to itself.
Daniel Ingemi Daniel Ingemi 10 minutes

The wren, professional title Troglodytes troglodytes, it is certainly one of the smallest birds in Europe and at the same time one of the noisiest. It has a very powerful song that can draw attention to itself. It spends most of its life in dense undergrowth and moves by hopping rather than flying through bushes and piles of branches.

To build spherical nests, the wren needs dense hedges and the presence of dead wood that has fallen to the ground in the forest. Its ideal habitat is natural forests with a high percentage of dead wood. In Europe and Italy, it inhabits densely forested areas with a permanently humid climate.

A very powerful song

As we have already said, one of his main characteristics is his singing, very strong and melodious. Already at the end of February, the song of the wren becomes the undisputed hero of our forests. Adult males prepare to defend their territory against possible intruders.

At a distance of one meter, the voice of this native bird reaches a sound power of 90 decibels, an intensity similar to that of a jackhammer.

The volume of the sound seems to belie the fact that the wren is actually one of the smallest birds in Europe. Only common rule (Regulus ignicapilla) and fiorrancino (Regulus ignicapilla) they are smaller. Its evocative name, bold appearance and small size make the wren one of our most popular and well-known bird species.

A very rude bird

Meeting or closely observing a wren while walking in the forest is really strenuous. Despite being a very common bird in many Italian regions.

This species stays in positions close to the ground and subsequently crawls into the undergrowth, where it finds refuge from bad weather. Equipped with a relatively pointed and slightly curved beak, looks for spiders, opilionids, moths, flies and other insects.

In the spring, when the leaves have not yet fully opened and the wren is in its wedding season, the more likely it is to be observed. Sometimes he leaves the bush for a while and begins to spread his song, given by shaking his little head left and right.

Wren
As if to belie the fact that the wren is actually one of the smallest birds found in Europe, the volume of the sound can exceed 90 decibels

Its tail held up, brown plumage, marked by dark transverse stripes arranged on the back and a light stripe located above the eyes, are characteristics that make the wren well recognizable compared to other small birds, together with its very small size. .

The short and rounded wings do not make the wren a great flyer, allowing it to travel relatively short distances, although some specimens are also migratory. The long legs are equipped with equally long toes, equipped with strong claws, with which the wren easily climbs up vertical tree trunks.

Areas of diffusion

The wren is divided into many subspecies, widespread between North America, Europe, Russia to Japan, in the zone between the coast of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Alps and the Carpathians. In Central Europe, the wren has a rather sedentary nature and is a facultative migrant.

However, wrens living in Scandinavia, the Baltic countries and Russia migrate to warmer areas in autumn, similar to populations present in the forests of the Alps and Apennines, which tend to move to lower altitudes.

Despite its small size, ornithologists have discovered how the little wren is able to cover a distance of 40 to 50 kilometers per day during migration. Record for longest distance flown by one a wren witnessed a bird ringed in Gotland (southern Sweden) and later found in southern Spain, 2,800 kilometers away.

European birds
Its tail held up, brown plumage, marked by dark transverse stripes arranged on the back, make it easily recognizable.

This bird lives mainly in mixed or deciduous forests rich in accessory vegetation (undergrowth) with high soil moisture. The presence of dead wood is important as it likes to build its nest in piles of branches, in the root systems of uprooted trees or between branches or in hollows of trunks and tree stumps.

If you leave a corner of the natural habitat in your garden, it is not unusual to be able to observe the wren in populated areas and even witness nesting.

In spring and summer, the wren lives mainly in forests, in winter many individuals of this species tend to change habitats. Many seek aquatic habitats where there are plenty of insects even in the cold season. For example, swamps are very popular in winter, especially where there are reed beds.

But it is also possible to observe it in populated areas, for example near composting plants, where it still finds something to eat. It has also been found that in winter, some wrens can group together and warm each other. If the winter is particularly severe, even males, who are usually particularly aggressive in defending their territory, tend to tolerate the presence of other specimens.

Nesting phase

Immediately after colonizing their territory, the males start building several rough nests in the spring, to which they try to attract females with their energetic singing. They use it as a building material moss, dry leaves, stems, twigs and small roots.

They are used in a wet state, so they tend to harden after drying, giving the whole nest the necessary resistance. Globular nests are built near the ground, among thick vegetation or among the stumps of fallen trees, or under the roots of water-eroded stumps on the banks of watercourses.

Wren
Meeting or closely observing a wren while walking in the forest is really strenuous. Despite being a very common bird in many Italian regions.

A single male must have at least two or three nests to attract a female. In some cases, up to 12 nests are needed. The male presents the female with one of the nests, she flies over him and pokes her head into him as she sings. Mating occurs only when the female shows interest in the chosen nest.

At that point, the female takes care of the selected nest, filling it with feathers and straw before laying her eggs. After 13 or 15 days the young emerge from the shell, they then remain in the nest for another 19 days before fledging. The male stays mostly near the nest, although he rarely feeds the female.

The pair stays together by flying and roosting together in one of the selected nests for a maximum of 18 days after all the birds have left the nest.



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